Valentinian I AE3. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left.EF WITH BEAUTIFUL APPLE GREEN PATINA

Ancient Coins - Valentinian I AE3. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left.EF WITH BEAUTIFUL APPLE GREEN PATINA
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Valentinian I AE3.17mm.  D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, diademed draped & cuirassed bust right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm, .DSISC in ex. Cohen 37, Siscia RIC 7a.  EF WITH BEAUTIFUL APPLE GREEN PATINA 

Victory

Wellington Arch, London
Victory (from Latin victoria) is a term, originally in applied to warfare, given to success achieved in personal combat, after military operations in general or, by extension, in any competition. Success in a military campaign is considered a strategic victory, while the success in a military engagement is a tactical victory.

In terms of human emotion, victory is accompanied with strong feelings of elation, and in human behaviour is often accompanied with movements and poses paralleling threat display preceding the combat, associated with the excess endorphin built up preceding and during combat. Victory dances and victory cries similarly parallel war dances and war cries performed before the outbreak of physical violence.

Examples of victory behaviour reported in Roman antiquity, where the term originates, are the victory songs of the Batavi mercenaries serving under Gaius Julius Civilis after the victory over Quintus Petillius Cerialis in the Batavian rebellion of 69 (according to Tacitus), and also the "abominable song" to Wodan, sung by the Langobards at their victory celebration in 579. The sacrificial animal was a goat, around whose head the Langobard danced in a circle while singing their victory hymn (see also Oslac). In the Roman Republic, victories were celebrated by triumph ceremonies and monuments such as victory columns (e.g. Trajan's Column). A trophy is a token of victory taken from the defeated party, such as the enemy's weapons (spolia), or body parts (as in the case of head hunters).

In mythology, victory is often deified, as in Greek Nike or Roman Victoria. Archetypical victories of good over evil, or of light over dark etc. are a recurring theme in mythology and fairy tales. The victorious agent is a hero, often portrayed as engaging in hand-to-hand combat with a monster (as Saint George slaying the dragon, Indra slaying Ahi, Thor slaying the Midgard Serpent etc.). Sol invictus ("Sun invincible") of Roman mythology became an epithet of Christ in Christian mythology. The resurrection of Christ is presented as a victory over Death and Sin by Paul of Tarsus (1 Corinthians 15:55; see also Jesus Christ in comparative mythology).

The Resurrection by Piero della Francesca, 1460.

Latinate victory from the 14th century replaces Old English sige (Gothic sigis, Old High German sigu), a frequent element in Germanic names (as in Sigibert, Sigurd etc.), cognate to Celtic sego- and Sanskrit sahas.

Valentinian I

Flavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was Roman Emperor from 364 until his death. Valentinian is often referred to as the "last great western emperor".[citation needed] Both he and his brother Emperor Valens were born at Cibalae (modern days Vinkovci, Croatia), in Pannonia, the sons of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.
Life
He had been an officer who served under the emperors Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.
The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens defeated his army at Thyatira in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany, and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples, specifically the Burgundians and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Ch�lons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 371, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrian, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

Solidus minted by Valens in ca. 376. On reverse, it shows the two brother emperors (Valens and Valentinian) holding together the orb, a symbol of power.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374, the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near today Kom�rno in Slovakia), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.
 Reputation
A.H.M. Jones writes that though he was "less of a boor" than his chief rival for election to the imperial throne, "he was of a violent and brutal temper, and not only uncultivated himself, but hostile to cultivated persons", as Ammianus tells us, 'he hated the well-dressed and educated and wealthy and well-born'. He was, however, an able soldier and a conscientious administrator, and took an interest in the welfare of the humbler classes, from which his father had risen. Unfortunately his good intentions were often frustrated by a bad choice of ministers, and an obstinate belief in their merits despite all evidence to the contrary."[1] According to the Encyclop�dia Britannica 1911, he was a founder of schools, and provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted liberal religious freedom to all his subjects, proscribing only some forms of rituals such as particular types of sacrifices, and banning the practice of magic. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical (excepting, of course, his own excesses), Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, some kinds of fortune-telling or magical practices."[2]

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