Mark Antony Legionary Denarius. 32-31 BC. Praetorian galley right / Legio IX Hispana

Ancient Coins - Mark Antony Legionary Denarius. 32-31 BC. Praetorian galley right / Legio IX Hispana
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Mark Antony Legionary Denarius. 32-31 BC. Praetorian galley right / LEG VIIII, aquila between two standards. 3.8gm GVF.Crawford 544/22; Syd 1226.RSC 36.
 
Legio IX Hispana
Active Before 58 BC to sometime in the 2nd century
Country Roman Republic and Roman Empire
Type Roman legion (Marian)
Role Infantry assault
Garrison/HQ Eboracum (71 - ?)
Mascot Bull (likely)
Engagements Gallic Wars (58-51 BC)
Cantabrian Wars (29-19 BC)
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Julius Caesar
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Military of ancient Rome (portal)
800 BC � AD 476
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Legio nona Hispana (or the Ninth Hispanic Legion), sometimes known as Legio IX Hispana[1] was a Roman legion. The legion's symbol is unknown, likely a bull, as other legions created by Caesar. It was raised, along with the 6th 7th, 8th, by Pompey in Spain in 65 BC [2]. Caesar first commanded them as Governor of Further Spain in 61 BC. He brought them over to Gaul around 58 BC, where they were present during the whole campaign of the Gallic wars.

The 9th was withdrawn to Spain in 49 BC where it earned the title �Hispaniensis�. (Caesar�s Gallic Wars) Later, they remained faithful to Caesar in the civil war. They fought in the battles of Dyrrhachium and Pharsalus (48 BC) and in the African campaign of 46 BC. After his final victory, Caesar disbanded the legion and settled the veterans in the area of Picenum.

Following Caesar's assassination, Octavian recalled the veterans of the Ninth to fight against the rebellion of Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. After his defeat, they were sent to the province of Macedonia. The Ninth remained with Octavian in his war of 31 BC against Mark Antony and fought by his side in the battle of Actium. With Octavian as sole ruler of the Roman world, the legion was sent to Hispania to take part in the large scale campaign against the Cantabrians (2513 BC). Their surname Hispana likely dates from this event and was probably earned for distinction in fighting.

After this, the legion was probably a member of the imperial army in the Rhine border that was campaigning against the Germanic tribes. Following the abandonment of the Eastern Rhine area (after the disaster of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest � AD 9), the Ninth was relocated in Pannonia.

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[edit] Invasion of Britain

In 43 they participated in the Roman invasion of Britain led by emperor Claudius and general Aulus Plautius. Under the command of Caesius Nasica they put down the first revolt of Venutius between 52 and 57. The Ninth suffered important losses under Quintus Petillius Cerialis in the rebellion of Boudica (61) and was later reinforced with legionaries from the Germania provinces. Their last record in Britain dates from the late 1st century (AD71) when they set up a fortress which later became part of Eburacum once the colonia was established, and is now York.


[edit] Disappearance

Although it is often said that the legion disappeared in 117,[3] there are extant records for the Ninth legion later than that year, and it was probably annihilated in the east of the Roman Empire. It was certainly in Nijmegen in 121 and was probably finally destroyed during the Bar Kochba Revolt in Palestine or in a conflict with the Parthian Empire in 161.[4]

[edit] Popular culture references

For a time it was believed, at least by some British historians, that the legion disappeared during its stay in Britain, presumably in conflict with the peoples of present-day Scotland. This idea was used in the novels The Eagle of the Ninth by Rosemary Sutcliff, Legion From the Shadows by Karl Edward Wagner, Red Shift by Alan Garner, Engine City by Ken MacLeod, Warriors of Alavna by N. M. Browne, and also in the movie The Last Legion.


Marcus Antonius (Latin: M�ANTONIVS�M�F�M�N[1]) (c. 83 BCAugust 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. He was an important supporter of Gaius Julius Caesar as a military commander and administrator. After Caesar's assassination, Antony allied with Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus to form an official triumvirate which modern scholars have labelled the second triumvirate. The triumvirate broke up in 33 BC and the disagreement turned to civil war in 31 BC, in which Antony was defeated by Octavian at the Battle of Actium and then at Alexandria. Antony committed suicide along with his lover, Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, in 30 BC.
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