Augustus Denarius, 2 BC - ca 13 AD.Gaius & Lucius standing

Ancient Coins - Augustus Denarius, 2 BC - ca 13 AD.Gaius & Lucius standing
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Augustus Denarius, 2 BC - ca 13 AD. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE. laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left (b9). BMC 533, RSC 43. nVF. 

Augustus Caesar
AVGVSTVS
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Bust of Caesar Augustus
Bust of Caesar Augustus
Reign 16 January 27 BC � August 19 AD 14
Predecessor Gaius Julius Caesar
Successor Tiberius
Spouse 1) Clodia Pulchra ? � 40 BC
2) Scribonia 40 BC � 38 BC
3) Livia Drusilla 38 BC � AD 14
Issue
Julia the Elder;
Gaius Caesar (adoptive);
Lucius Caesar (adoptive);
Tiberius (adoptive)
Full name
Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus
Father Gaius Octavius;
adopted by Julius Caesar
Mother Atia Balba Caesonia
Born September 23, 63 BC
Rome, Roman Republic
Died August 19, AD 14 (age 75)
Nola, Italia, Roman Empire
Burial Mausoleum of Augustus, Rome

Augustus (Latin: IMPERATOR�CAESAR�DIVI�FILIVS�AVGVSTVS;[note 1] September 23, 63 BC � August 19, AD 14), born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was adopted by his great-uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BC, and was thenceforth known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Latin: GAIVS�IVLIVS�CAESAR�OCTAVIANVS). After his adoption, he became the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. The young Octavius came into his inheritance after Caesar's assassination in 44 BC. In 43 BC, Octavianus joined forces with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in a military dictatorship known as the Second Triumvirate. As a Triumvir, Octavian ruled Rome and many of its provinces[note 2] as an autocrat, seizing consular power after the deaths of the consuls Hirtius and Pansa and having himself perpetually re-elected. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing ambitions of its rulers: Lepidus was driven into exile, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by the fleet of Octavian in 31 BC.

After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Octavian restored the outward facade of the Roman Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, but in practice retained his autocratic power. It took several years to work out the exact framework by which a formally republican state could be led by a sole ruler; the result became known as the Roman Empire. The emperorship was never an office like the Roman dictatorship which Caesar and Sulla had held before him; indeed, he declined it when the Roman populace "entreated him to take on the dictatorship".[1] By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including those of tribune of the plebs and censor. He was consul until 23 BC.[2] His substantive power stemmed from financial success and resources gained in conquest, the building of patronage relationships throughout the Empire, the loyalty of many military soldiers and veterans, the authority of the many honors granted by the Senate,[3] and the respect of the people. Augustus' control over the majority of Rome's legions established an armed threat that could be used against the Senate, allowing him to coerce the Senate's decisions. With his ability to eliminate senatorial opposition by means of arms, the Senate became docile towards his paramount position. His rule through patronage, military power, and accumulation of the offices of the defunct Republic became the model for all later imperial government.

The rule of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana, or Roman peace. Despite continuous frontier wars, and one year-long civil war over the imperial succession, the Mediterranean world remained at peace for more than two centuries. Augustus expanded the Roman Empire, secured its boundaries with client states, and made peace with Parthia through diplomacy. He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army (and a small navy), established the Praetorian Guard, and created official police and fire-fighting forces for Rome. Much of the city was rebuilt under Augustus; and he wrote a record of his own accomplishments, known as the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, which has survived. Upon his death in AD 14, Augustus was declared a god by the Senate, to be worshipped by the Romans.[4] His names Augustus and Caesar were adopted by every subsequent emperor, and the month of Sextilis was officially renamed August in his honour. He was succeeded by his stepson and son-in-law,


Gaius Julius Caesar (20 BC - AD 4), most commonly known as Gaius Caesar or Caius Caesar, was the oldest son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder.[1]. He was born with the name Gaius Vipsanius Agrippa, but when he was adopted by his maternal grandfather Roman Emperor Augustus, his name was changed to Gaius Julius Caesar

(20 BC - AD 4), most commonly known as or , was the oldest son of and .. He was born with the name , but when he was adopted by his maternal grandfather , his name was changed to
Cast of a portrait of Gaius Caesar

Gaius was adopted along with his brother Lucius Caesar in 17 BC by their maternal grandfather, the Roman Emperor Augustus, who named the two boys his heirs. In 6 BC the Roman plebs agitated for Gaius to be created consul, despite the fact that he was only 14 and had not yet assumed the toga virilis. As a compromise, it was agreed that he should have the right to sit in the Senate House, and he was made consul designatus with the intention that he should assume the consulship in his twentieth year. Gaius was at this point created "Prince of Youth" ("princeps iuventutis"), an honorific that made him one of the symbolic heads of the equestrian order. Lucius, three years his junior, was granted the same honours after the appropriate interval had elapsed. Temples and statues were erected in their honour (as in the case of the Maison Carr�e in Nimes). In 1 BC he was made army commander and with the king Ariobarzanes, whom he gave power over the Armenians and offered an island to the Euphrates. In 1 AD, he was made Consul with Lucius Aemilius Paullus as his colleague.

Gaius Caesar

In 1 BC, he married his relative, Livilla, daughter of Drusus the Elder and Antonia Minor. This union had no issue.[2]

Lucius died in AD 2 and Gaius died two years later in Lycia at the age of 24, after being wounded during a campaign in Artagira, Armenia.[3]

The death of both Gaius and Lucius, the Emperor's two most favored heirs, compelled Augustus to adopt his stepson, Tiberius, and his sole remaining grandson, Postumus Agrippa as his new respective heirs.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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