Alexander the Great Æ18., horse(Bucephalus ) prancing right, star below.

Ancient Coins - Alexander the Great Æ18., horse(Bucephalus ) prancing right, star below.
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Alexander III the Great �17.4.7g. Head of Apollo right, hair bound with tainia / ALEXANDROU, (Bucephalus ) prancing right, star below. sg6744. Beautiful apple green patina EF and rare.


The legend begins with Philoneicus, a Thessalian,bringing a wild horse to Philip II for him to buy (Plutarch, Alexander 6.1.).Plutarch gives us the rest of the story as well. Nobody could tame down the gorgeous horse, and Philip grew upset at Philoneicus for bringing such an unstable horse to him. Alexander, however, publicly defied his father and claimed that he could handle the horse. Alexander's reaction was viewed by his father to be immature, in addition to being disrespectful to all the people that failed to tame down Bucephalus. For that reason, Philip proposed, and Alexander agreed instantly, that if Alexander could ride the the "wild" horse, Philip would buy it; on the other hand, if not Alexander failed at taming down Bucephalus, he would have to pay the price of the horse, which was 13 talents, an enormous sum for a boy of Alexander's age to have. (The 1994 World Almanac says that 1 talent was about 60 pounds. Sixty pounds of anything is a lot of money.)

Alexander apparently noticed that the horse had been shying away from its own shadow, and so he led it gently into the sun, so that its shadow was behind it, all the while stroking it gently and whispering into its ear. Eventually the horse let Alexander mount him, and the 12 year-old Alexander was able to show his equestrian skill to his father and all who were watching:

"Philip and his friends looked on at first in silence and anxiety for the result, till seeing him turn at the end of his career, and come back rejoicing and triumphing for what he had performed, they all burst out into acclamations of applause; and his father shedding tears, it is said, for joy, kissed him as he came down from his horse, and in his transport said, 'O my son, look thee out a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself, for Macedonia is too little for thee.'"

(Plutarch, Alexander 6.8.) Alexander went on to name his horse Bucephalus, which means Oxhead, as the horse had a rather sizeable head.
It is interesting to note that at the time of Alexander people used only bridles and cloths laid over their horses' backs to ride; leather saddles or stirrups were not in use at the time. Despite the fact that they had little tack to make riding comfortable, Alexander and Bucephalus rode thousands of miles and fought in many battles together. The king's stallion died of battle wounds in June of 326 B.C., in Alexander's last great battle on the left bank of the Hydaspes. He founded two cities there, Alexandria Nicaea (to celebrate his victory) and Bucephala (modern Jhelum), named after Bucephalus. For his beloved horse, Alexander held a generous funeral, which he himself led. Alexander knew that it was with the help of his wonderful horse Bucephalus, that he had become Alexander the Great. After all, Alexander viewed his Bucephalus like his hero Achilles viewed his horses, who said they were known to "excel all others - for they are immortal; Poseidon gave them to my father Peleus, who in his turn gave them to myself" (Homer, The Illiad, Book XXIII).
2nd century AD Roman statue of Apollo depicting the god's attributes - the lyre and the snake Python

In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (in Greek, ἈπόλλωνAp�llōn or ἈπέλλωνApellōn), is one of the most important and many-sided of the Olympian deities. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun; truth and prophecy; archery; medicine and healing; music, poetry, and the arts; and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu. Apollo was worshipped in both ancient Greek and Roman religion, as well as in the modern Hellenic neopaganism.

As the patron of Delphi (Pythian Apollo), Apollo was an oracular god � the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing were associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius. Apollo was also seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague as well as one who had the ability to cure. Amongst the god's custodial charges, Apollo became associated with dominion over colonists, and as the patron defender of herds and flocks. As the leader of the Muses (Apollon Musagetes) and director of their choir, Apollo functioned as the patron god of music and poetry. Hermes created the lyre for him, and the instrument became a common attribute of Apollo. Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans.

In Hellenistic times, especially during the third century BCE, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios, god of the sun, and his sister Artemis similarly equated with Selene, goddess of the moon.[1] In Latin texts, however, Joseph Fontenrose declared himself unable to find any conflation of Apollo with Sol among the Augustan poets of the first century, not even in the conjurations of Aeneas and Latinus in Aeneid XII (161-215).[2] Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the third century CE.
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